America's Test Kitchen All-Purpose Gluten-Free Flour Blend

Why This Recipe Works

When looking for a wheat-free substitute for all-purpose flour, no single gluten-free flour or starch behaves like wheat flour—a blend is a must. Because store-bought blends perform inconsistently—one product might deliver great cookies but subpar cakes—we decided to create our own. We found that two flours—white rice and brown rice—provided the right baseline of protein, starch, and flavor. Since different starches absorb water, swell, and gel at different temperatures and to different degrees, we enlisted both tapioca starch and potato starch to create the right amount of chew and structure. Milk powder was key to our blend’s success, contributing proteins that help improve structure in our gluten-free baked goods and, along with its sugars, undergo the Maillard browning reaction, which leads to more complex flavor.


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24 ounces (4 1/2 cups plus 1/3 cup) white rice flour
7 ½ ounces (1 2/3 cups) brown rice flour
7 ounces (1 1/3 cups) potato starch
3 ounces (3/4 cup) tapioca starch
¾ ounce (1/4 cup) nonfat dry milk powder

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Makes 42 Ounces (About 9 1/3 Cups)

Be sure to use potato starch, not potato flour, with this recipe. Tapioca starch is also sold as tapioca flour; they are interchangeable. We strongly recommend that you use Bob’s Red Mill white and brown rice flours (read more information on rice flours). We also recommend that you weigh your ingredients; if you measure by volume, spoon each ingredient into the measuring cup (do not pack or tap) and scrape off the excess. Check out our book The How Can It Be Gluten-Free Cookbook for more recipes using the blend.

Whisk all ingredients in large bowl until well combined. Transfer to airtight container and refrigerate for up to 3 months.

Watch The Full Episode

Season 15, Ep. 14

Test cook Julia Collin Davison uncovers the secrets to The Best Gluten-Free Pizza. Then, test cook Dan Souza explains the science of gluten. Next, tasting expert Jack Bishop conducts a tastin...